List of paraphilias, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is a list of paraphilias, defined as powerful and persistent sexual interest other than in copulatory or precopulatory behavior with phenotypically normal, consenting adult human partners.[1] Some paraphilias have more than one term to describe them, and some terms overlap with others. Paraphilias without DSM codes listed come under DSM 302.9, “Paraphilia NOS (Not Otherwise Specified)”. A 2009 list contains a total of 547 paraphilias, but leads with the statement that “Not all these paraphilias have necessarily been seen in clinical setups. This may not be because they do not exist, but because they are so innocuous they are never brought to the notice of clinicians. Like allergies, sexual arousal may occur from anything under the sun, including the sun.”[2]



[edit] Paraphilias

Formal name Source of arousal DSM code
Abasiophilia People with impaired mobility[3]
Acrotomophilia People with amputations[4][5]
Agalmatophilia Statues, mannequins and immobility[6]
Algolagnia Pain, particularly involving an erogenous zone; differs from masochism as there is a biologically different interpretation of the sensation rather than a subjective interpretation[7]
Andromimetophilia Female-to-male transsexuals[8][3]
Apotemnophilia Having an amputation[4][9]
Asphyxiophilia Asphixiation or strangulation[4]
Autagonistophilia Being on stage or on camera[10][11]
Autassassinophilia Being in life-threatening situations[4]
Autoandrophilia Arousal by a biological female imagining herself as a male[12][13]
Autoerotic asphixiation Self-induced asphyxiation, sometimes to the point of near unconsciousness[11]
Autogynephilia Arousal by a biological male imagining himself as a female[14]
Biastophilia Arousal based on the rape of an unconsenting person[4]
Chremastistophilia Being robbed or held up[10]
Chronophilia Partners of a widely differing chronological age[10]
Coprophilia Feces; also known as scat, scatophilia or fecophilia[15][16]
Dacryphilia Tears or crying[17]
Dendrophilia Trees[4]
Emetophilia Vomit[3]
Erotic asphyxiation Asphyxia of oneself or others[18]
Erotophonophilia Murder[4]
Exhibitionism Exposing oneself sexually to others, with or without their consent[16] 303.4
Formicophilia Being crawled on by insects[10][19]
Frotteurism Rubbing against a non-consenting person[16] 302.89
Gerontophilia Elderly people[20]
Gynandromorphophilia Women with penises, men cross-dressed as women, or male-to-female transsexuals[21][3]
Hebephilia Pubescent children[22]
Homeovestism Wearing clothing emblematic of one’s own sex[23][24]
Hybristophilia Criminals, particularly for cruel or outrageous crimes[10][25]
Infantophilia Not in general use. Recently suggested term referring to pedophilia with a focus on children five years old or younger.[26]
Kleptophilia Stealing; also known as kleptolagnia[3]
Klismaphilia Enemas[3]
Lactophilia Breast milk[27]
Liquidophilia Attraction, or desire to immerse genitals in liquids[27]
Maiesiophilia Sexual attraction of pregnant women
Macrophilia Giants, primarily domination by giant women or men[27]
Mammaphilia Breasts; also known as mammagynophilia and mastofact[27]
Masochism The desire to suffer, be beaten, bound or otherwise humiliated[16] 302.83
Menophilia Menstruation[27]
Morphophilia Particular body shapes or sizes[11]
Mucophilia Mucus[27]
Mysophilia Dirtiness, soiled or decaying things[3]
Narratophilia Obscene words, colloquially known as “talking dirty”[3]
Nasophilia Noses[27]
Necrophilia Cadavers[16][28]
Olfactophilia Smells[3][10][3]
Paraphilic infantilism Being a baby;[16] also referred to as autonepiophilia[10]
Partialism Specific, non-genital body parts[16][3]
Paedophilia Prepubescent children, also spelled pedophilia [16][29] 302.2
Peodeiktophilia Exposing one’s penis[4]
Pedovestism Dressing like a child[30]
Pictophilia Pornography or erotic art, particularly pictures[10][3]
Pyrophilia Fire[31]
Raptophilia Committing rape[10]
Sadism Inflicting pain on others[16] 302.84
Salirophilia Soiling or dirtying others[3]
Sexual fetishism Nonliving objects[16] 302.81
Somnophilia Sleeping or unconscious people[10][3]
Sthenolagnia Muscles and displays of strength[27]
Stigmatophilia Body piercings and tattoos[4][27]
Symphorophilia Witnessing or staging disasters such as car accidents[4]
Telephone scatologia Obscene phone calls, particularly to strangers; also known as telephonicophilia[10][16]
Teratophilia Deformed or monstrous people[32]
Transvestic fetishism Wearing clothes associated with the opposite sex; also known as transvestism[16] 302.3
Transvestophilia A transvestite sexual partner[10]
Trichophilia Hair[27]
Troilism Cuckoldism, watching one’s partner have sex with someone else, possibly without the third party’s knowledge; also known as triolism[11][33]
Urolagnia Urination, particularly in public, on others, and/or being urinated on[3][10][11][16]
Ursusagalmatophilia Teddy bears[6]
Vampirism Drawing or drinking blood[34][35]
Vorarephilia Eating or being eaten by others; usually swallowed whole, in one piece [36]
Voyeurism Watching others while naked or having sex, generally without their knowledge; also known as scopophilia or scoptophilia.[16][11] 302.82
Zoophilia Animals (actual, not anthropomorphic)[3][10][16]
Zoosadism Inflicting pain on or seeing animals in pain[37]

Technical terms for non-paraphilic sexual interests

[edit] Homosexuality

Homosexuality was listed as a paraphilia in early versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and was removed from the third version.[41][42][43]

See also


  1. ^ Cantor, J. M., Blanchard, R., & Barbaree, H. E. (2009). Sexual disorders. In P. H. Blaney & T. Millon (Eds.), Oxford textbook of psychopathology (2nd ed.) (pp. 527–548). New York: Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ Aggrawal, Anil (2009). Forensic and Medico-legal Aspects of Sexual Crimes and Unusual Sexual Practices. Boca Raton: CRC Press. pp. 369-82. ISBN 1420043080.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Milner, JS; Dopke CA (2008). “Paraphilia Not Otherwise Specified: Psychopathology and theory”. in Laws DR & O’Donohue WT. Sexual Deviance, Second Edition: Theory, Assessment, and Treatment. New York: The Guilford Press. pp. 384-418. ISBN 1-59385-605-9.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Money, J (1984). “Paraphilias: Phenomenology and classification”. American Journal of Psychotherapy 38 (2): 164–78. PMID 6234812.
  5. ^ Money, J; Simcoe KW (1986). “Acrotomophilia, sex, and disability: New concepts and case report”. Sexuality and Disability 7 (1/2): 43–50. doi:10.1007/BF01101829.
  6. ^ a b Scobie, A; Taylor J (1975). “Perversions ancient and modern: I. Agalmatophilia, the statue syndrome”. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences 11: 49–54. doi:10.1002/1520-6696(197501)11:1<49::AID-JHBS2300110112>3.0.CO;2-6. PMID 11609831.
  7. ^ Kelley, K; Byrne D (1986). Alternative Approaches to the Study of Sexual Behavior. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 13–38. ISBN 0898596777.
  8. ^ Money, J; Lamacz, M (1984). “Gynemimesis and gynemimetophilia: Individual and cross-cultural manifestations of a gender-coping strategy hitherto unnamed”. Comprehensive Psychiatry 25 (4): 392–403. PMID 6467919.
  9. ^ Money, J (1977). “Apotemnophilia: Two cases of self-demand amputation as a paraphilia”. The Journal of Sex Research 13 (2): 115–125.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Money, John (1988). Lovemaps: Clinical Concepts of Sexual/Erotic Health and Pathology, Paraphilia, and Gender Transposition in Childhood, Adolescence, and Maturity. Buffalo, N.Y: Prometheus Books. ISBN 0-87975-456-7.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Seto, MC; Barbaree HE (2000). “Paraphilias”. in Hersen M; Van Hasselt VB. Aggression and violence: an introductory text. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. pp. 198–213. ISBN 0-205-26721-1.
  12. ^ Dickey, R; Stephens J (1995). “Female-to-male transsexualism, heterosexual type: Two cases”. Archives of Sexual Behavior 24 (4): 439–445. doi:10.1007/BF01541857.
  13. ^ Lawrence, AA (2009). “Anatomic autoandrophilia in an adult male”. Archives of Sexual Behavior. doi:10.1007/s10508-008-9446-6. PMID 19093196.
  14. ^ a b Blanchard, R (1989). “The concept of autogynephilia and the typology of male gender dysphoria”. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 177 (10): 616–623. PMID 2794988.
  15. ^ Xavier, CM (1955). “Coprophilia: A clinical study”. British Journal of Medical Psychology 28 (2-3): 188–190. PMID 14389628.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association. 2000. ISBN 0-89042-025-4.
  17. ^ Holmes, RM. Sex Crimes: Patterns and Behavior. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications. pp. 244. ISBN 0761924175. OCLC 48883594.
  18. ^ Blanchard, R; Hucker SJ (1991). “Age, transvestism, bondage, and concurrent paraphilic activities in 117 fatal cases of autoerotic asphyxia”. British Journal of Psychiatry 159: 371–7. PMID 1958948.
  19. ^ Dewaraja, R; Money J (1986). “Transcultural sexology: Formicophilia, a newly named paraphilia in a young Buddhist male”. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 12 (2): 139–145. doi:10.1080/00926238608415401. PMID 3723604.
  20. ^ Hirschfeld, M (1920). Die homosexualität des mannes und des weibes [Homosexuality in men and women] (2nd ed.). Berlin: Louis Marcus.
  21. ^ Blanchard, R; Collins PI (1993). “Men with sexual interest in transvestites, transsexuals, and she-males”. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 181 (9): 570–575. PMID 8245926.
  22. ^ a b Blanchard, R. Blanchard, R., Lykins, A. D., Wherrett, D., Kuban, M. E., Cantor, J. M., Blak, T., Dickey, R., & Klassen, P. E. (2008). Pedophilia, hebephilia, and the DSM–V. Archives of Sexual Behavior. DOI 10.1007/s10508-008-9399-9.
  23. ^ Zavitzianos G (1972). “Homeovestism: perverse form of behaviour involving wearing clothes of the same sex”. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 53 (4): 471–7. PMID 4664943.
  24. ^ Zavitzianos G (1977). “The object in fetishism, homeovestism and transvestism”. International Journal of Psychoanalysis 58 (4): 487–95. PMID 598975.
  25. ^ Sharma BR (September 2003). “Disorders of sexual preference and medicolegal issues thereof”. American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology 24 (3): 277–82. doi:10.1097/01.paf.0000069503.21112.d2. PMID 12960665.
  26. ^ Greenberg DM, Bradford J, Curry S (1995). “Infantophilia–a new subcategory of pedophilia?: a preliminary study”. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law 23 (1): 63–71. PMID 7599373. .
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Scorolli C, Ghirlanda S, Enquist M, Zattoni S, Jannini EA (2007). “Relative prevalence of different fetishes”. Int. J. Impot. Res. 19 (4): 432–7. doi:10.1038/sj.ijir.3901547. PMID 17304204.
  28. ^ Rosman JP, Resnick PJ (1989). “Sexual attraction to corpses: a psychiatric review of necrophilia”. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law 17 (2): 153–63. PMID 2667656.
  29. ^ Krafft-Ebing, R (1886/1998). Psychopathia sexualis: A medico-forensic study (1998 translation by Franklin S. Klaf. Arcade Publishing. pp. 408]. ISBN 1559704268.
  30. ^ Lawrence, AA (2006). “Clinical and theoretical parallels between desire for limb amputation and gender identity disorder”. Archives of Sexual Behavior 35: 263–278. doi:10.1007/s10508-006-9026-6. PMID 16799838.
  31. ^ Bourget D; Bradford J (1987). “Fire fetishism, diagnostic and clinical implications: A review of two cases”. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 32 (6): 459–462. PMID 2961431.
  32. ^ Aggrawal, Anil (2008). Forensic and Medico-Legal Aspects of Sexual Crimes and Unusual Sexual Practices. CRC Press. ISBN 1420043080.
  33. ^ Wernik, U (1990). “The nature of explanation in sexology and the riddle of triolism.”. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment 3 (1): 5–20. doi:10.1007/BF00849719.
  34. ^ Vanden Bergh, RL; Kelly JF (1964). “Vampirism: A review with new observations”. Archives of General Psychiatry 11 (5): 543–547.
  35. ^ Prins, H (1985). “Vampirism—A clinical condition”. British Journal of Psychiatry 146: 666–668. PMID 4016482.
  36. ^ Brenda Brathwaite. “Defining sex”. Sex in Video Games. London: Charles River Media. ISBN 1-58450-459-5.
  37. ^ Williams, CJ; Weinberg MS (2003). “Zoophilia in Men: A study of sexual interest in animals”. Archives of Sexual Behavior 32: 523–535. doi:10.1023/A:1026085410617. PMID 14574096.
  38. ^ Blanchard, R. (1989). The classification and labelling of nonhomosexual gender dysphorias. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 18, 315–334.
  39. ^ Krafft-Ebing, R., & Moll, A. (1924). Psychopathia sexualis. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke.
  40. ^ Blanchard, R., Barbaree, H. E., Bogaert, A. F., Dickey, R., Klassen, P., Kuban, M. E., & Zucker, K. J. (2000). Fraternal birth order and sexual orientation in pedophiles. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 29, 463–478.
  41. ^ Hutchinson, GE (1959). “A speculative consideration of certain possible forms of sexual selection in man”. American Naturalist 93 (869): 81–91.
  42. ^ Kleinplatz, Peggy J. (2001). New directions in sex therapy: innovations and alternatives. Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge. ISBN 0-87630-967-8.
  43. ^ Kafka, MP (1996). “Therapy for Sexual Impulsivity: The Paraphilias and Paraphilia-Related Disorders”. Psychiatric Times 13 (6).

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